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- al-Tabari, 5:1.
- ibid. 5:2.
- al-Bukhari, Nikah 12,24,60; Maghazi 38; al-Tirmidsi,
Adab 22; Abu Dawud, Adab 124; Muslim, Radha` 33; Abu
Dawud, Nikah 44.
- al-Tabari, 5:6.
- ibid. 5:7-8.
- Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) (Leiden, 1934), vol.1, p.17ff. The
Old Testament says about slaves: "Your male and female slaves are to come
from the nations around you; from them you may buy slaves. You may also buy some
of the temporary residents living among you and members of their clans born in
your country, and they will become your property. You can will them to your
children as inherited property and can make them slaves for life, but you must
not rule over your fellow Israelites ruthlessly" (Leviticus 25:44-46 in the
- EI, vol.1, p.18. This, at least, should be considered a great
improvement on the position of male and female slaves, in comparison with their
situation before Islam, since at that time the children of the slave woman from
a free father would follow the state of their mother and remain slaves.
- W. Juynboll, p.234ff.
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