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Endnotes: chapter two

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  1. The religious duty of Pilgrimage with its rites, for example, were pre-Islamic traditions that Muhammad adopted and moulded into an Islamic form (Theodor Nöldeke, Geschichte des Korans (Leipzig, 1909), vol.1., p.147. "Ka`ba", Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden, 1974), p.192. W.M. Watt, Introduction to the Qur'an (Edinburgh, 1990), p.163f).
  2. Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Jami` al-bayan `an ta'wil al-Qur'an, ed. Mahmud Muhammad Shakir (Cairo, 1968), 5:57.
  3. ibid. 5:58.
  4. ibid. Also: "There might be among them someone endowed with (sound) mind and opinion, just as there might be among infants and boys. Yet it is very unlikely" (Abu Mansur al-Tha`alibi, Tuhfat al-wuzara' (Baghdad, 1977), p.93).
  5. `Ala' al-Din `Ali Ibn Muhammad al-Khazin, Lubab al-ta'wil fi Ma`ani al-tafsir, 2:344. Abu Ja`far Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan al-Tusi says that man's superiority [or charge] over woman is manifest in his intelligence, understanding, and his disciplining her (al-Tibyan 3:189).
  6. al-Zirikli, al-A`lam (Beirut, 1910), 6:252-253.
  7. Muhammad Rashid Ridha, al-Manar, 5:57. For more arguments, review Ridha's answer to those who support women's rights: Nida li al-jins al-latif, p.17-32.
  8. Abbas Mahmud al-Aqqad, al-Mar'a fi al-Qur'an, p.15,16. Muhammad Kurd `Ali stated similar thoughts before al-Aqqad, "Although the west has given women complete freedom in educated circles, there is no accomplished poetess, eloquent writer, or a clever doctor among them until now" (quoted by `Abd al-Wadud Shalabi, al-Islam, p.233 from al-Islam wa al-hadhara al-garbiyya 1:96).
  9. Abbas Mahmud al-Aqqad, al-Mar'a fi al-Qur'an, p.24.
  10. ibid. p.38.
  11. `Abd al-Wadud Shalabi, al-Islam, p.42.
  12. al-Bukhari, Haidh 6; Muslim, Iman 132; Abu Dawud, Sunna 15; al-Tirmidsi, Iman 6; Sunan Ibn Maja, Fitan 19; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal 2:67.
  13. al-Sharif al-Murtadha, Rasa'il (Beirut, n.d.), 3:123.
  14. `Ala' al-Din Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanzu al-`ummal (Haidarabad, 1974), 22:10.
  15. Ibn Qutaiba, `Uyun al-akhbar (Cairo, 1934-1949), 4:78.
  16. Kanzu al-`ummal, 22:10.
  17. ibid. 22:12.
  18. ibid. 21:205.
  19. ibid. 21:205.
  20. Nihayat al-`arab (Beirut, n.d.), 2:198.
  21. Kanzu al-`ummal.
  22. ibid.
  23. ibid, 22:7.
  24. ibid.
  25. ibid.
  26. ibid.
  27. Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Musnad (Cairo, n.d.), 4:197,205. Kanzu al-`ummal, 22:11.
  28. Kanzu al-`ummal, 22:12.
  29. Muslim, Salat 265; Abu Dawud, Salat 109; al-Tirmidsi, Salat 136, Said 16; al-Nasa'i, Qibla 7; Ibn Maja, Iqama 38; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 5:139,151,156,158,160; 6:157,280. It seems that `A'isha did not like this saying, and she was persuaded that this fits the imaginations of men rather than the way Muhammad used to speak. She said, "How wicked of you to make us equal to the donkeys and the dogs! I used to sleep in front of the Messenger of God, and my legs were opposite his Qibla. And in prostration he pushed my legs and I withdrew them" (Abu Dawud, Salat 109; al-Bukhari, Salat 99; Muslim, Salat 271; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 6:44,45,230,266).
  30. Abu Dawud, Salat 109; the Hadiths saying that the black dog is a devil are in Muslim, Salat 265; Abu Dawud, Salat 109; al-Tirmidsi, Salat 136, Said 16; al-Nisa'i, Qibla 7; Ibn Maja, Iqama 38; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 5:149,151,156,158,160; 6:157,280.
  31. Abu Dawud, Salat 109.
  32. Muslim, Salat 269.
  33. Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 6:86.
  34. William E.H. Lecky, History of European Morals (London, 1869), vol. 2, p.301.
  35. al-Bukhari, Jihad 47, Nikah 17, Tibb 43; Muslim, Salam 115-120; Abu Dawud, Tibb 24; al-Tirmidsi, Adab 58; al-Nasa'i, Khail 5; Ibn Maja, Nikah 55; al-Muwatta', Isti'dsan 22; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal 8:36,115,126.
  36. Kanzu al-`ummal, 22:12.
  37. Mahmud Shaltut, al-Islam `aqida wa shari`a, p.218.
  38. ibid. p.219.

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