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Endnotes: chapter twenty

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  1. Rudi Paret, Zur Frauenfrage, p.37f. Snouck Hurgronje, Bijdragen tot de Taal- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-India (Bonn-Leipzig, 1923), 1:305-7.
  2. Sura al-Ahzab 33:59 refers to this: "O Prophet, say to thy wives and daughters and the believing women, that they draw their veils close to them; so it is likelier they will be known, and not hurt. God is All-forgiving, All-compassionate." Cf. for the reason for the revelation of this verse, Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawzi, Zad al-masir, 6:422; al-Sabuni, 2:377. The other verses that are cited to prove that the veil is an obligatory requirement are Sura al-Ahzab 33:32,53. The Dutch orientalist Snouck Hurgronje stated that using these two verses to prove the legality of wearing the veil is an impossibility, as the two verses, Sura al-Ahzab 33:32 and 53, have to do with Muhammad's wives only and are not binding on the other women at all. In addition, Sura al-Ahzab 33:53 is very vague and does not tell us whether the face and the hands should be veiled or not. Even though the answer is no, the use of the veil has spread and rooted itself in Islamic society and acquired a religious character in the works of the jurists and expositors. Yet, this phenomenon has its own reasons (Mansour Fahmi, La Condition de la Femme dans la Tradition et l'Évolution de l'Islamisme (Paris, 1913), p.49-81. Rudi Paret, Zur Frauenfrage, p.37f.) Al-Aqqad thinks also that the above-mentioned verses have to do with the wives of the prophet only, and that the veil Islam requires does not mean excluding woman from public life. Nevertheless, al-Aqqad does not explain what he means precisely by "veil", but is indignant because the veil is referred to as though it is a purely Islamic phenomenon, even though it was common among the Romans and was mentioned in the Old and New Testaments (Abbas Mahmud al-Aqqad, al-Mar'a fi al-Islam, p.67,72).
  3. Lisan al-Arab, (Beirut, 1955) 1:296ff.
  4. Ibn Kathir, 3:293-294.
  5. al-Suyuti, al-Durr al-manthur, 5:40; al-Sabuni, 2:148.
  6. al-Raghib al-Isfahani, Mu`jam mufradat alfaz al-Qur'an, ed. Nadim al-Mar`ashli, (Beirut, n.d.) p.365.
  7. Muslim, Haidh 7; al-Tirmidsi, Adab, 38; Ibn Maja, Tihara 137; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 3:63.
  8. al-Sabuni, 2:154.
  9. See footnote 7 for sources.
  10. Abu Dawud, Hamam 1; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 3:478.
  11. Abu Dawud, Jana'iz 7; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 1:146. There are other traditions indicating that the thigh is a nakedness: al-Tirmidsi, Adab 40; al-Darimi, Isti'dsan 22.
  12. Sura al-Mu'minun 23:6.
  13. Al-Sabuni quotes the same (2:153) from Ibn al-Jawzi, Zad al-ma`ad, 6:31.
  14. al-Sabuni, 2:154.
  15. ibid. 2:155.
  16. ibid. 2:155.
  17. ibid. 2:156.
  18. al-Tabari, 22:46.
  19. Abu Dawud, Libas 31; al-Tirmidsi, Fitan 47.
  20. Muslim, Libas 125, Janna 52; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 2:223, 356.
  21. Abu Dawud, Tarajjul 7; al-Tirmidsi, Adab 35; al-Nasa'i, Zina 35; al-Darimi, Isti'dsan 18; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 4:400,414,418.
  22. Ibn Maja, Fitan 19.
  23. al-Sabuni, 2:357ff.
  24. Fi Zilal al-Qur'an 6:92.
  25. ibid. 6:93.
  26. Mustafa Ghalyani, Nazarat fi kitab al-Sufur wa al-hijab (Beirut, 1928), p.68ff.
  27. al-Sabuni, 2:388.



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