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- EI, vol.2, p.1028. Tilmann Nagel, Der Qur'an, Einführung-Texte-Erläuterungen
(München, 1983), p.12. It is said about Muhammad that he considered
circumcision a part of the instinct (fitra). It seems, however, that the
narrators suspect that `A'isha said, "The Messenger of God said, 'Ten
things are part of the instinct: shaving the moustache, growing the beard,
cleaning the teeth with siwak, washing with water, clipping the
fingernails, washing the knuckles, pulling the armpit hair, shaving the pubic
hair, and wiping oneself with water.'" Zakariya narrated that Sa`b said, "The
tenth can only be gargling" (another tradition has it that "gargling
and cleaning the nose by sniffing water are a part of the instinct").
Zakariya mentioned the same as we said before, but for growing the beard, and
added circumcision (al-Bukhari, Libas 63,64, Isti'dsan 51;
Muslim, Tahara 49; Abu Dawud, Tahara 29, Tarajjul 16;
al-Tirmidsi, Adab 14; al-Nasa'i', Tahara 9:10, Zina
1,55; Ibn Maja, Tahara 8; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal 2:229,239,283,410,389). One
can easily conclude that circumcision was a common practice in the Arabian
Peninsula. Even though there is no mention of it in the Qur'an, both Hadith and
old poetry refer to this fact (EI, vol.2, p.1028).
- Shaltut, Khitan al-untha, in Liwa' al-Islam, 1951, p.55.
- Ahmad Ibn Hanbal 5:75; Abu Dawud, Adab 167.
- Abu Dawud, Adab 167.
- Afifi Muhammad al-Saadiq, Fi fiqh al-mar'a al-muslima (Beirut,
- `Awn al-Ma`bud, Sharh Sunan Abi Dawud (Cairo, 1969), 13:185.
- Muhammad Ibrahim Salim, Fatwa fi khitan al-untha, in Liwa'
al Islam, p.330.
- Shaltut, Khitan al-untha, in Liwa' al-Islam, 1950.
- Fatwa fi al-Khitan, in Liwa' al-Islam, 1950.
- Liwa' al-Islam, 1950, p.59.
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