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- Ahamd Ibn Hanbal, 3:128,199,285; al-Nasa'i', Kitab `ishrat an-nisa',
p.16; Tabaqat Ibn Sa'd, 1:398.
- Tabaqat Ibn Sa'd 1:398. Perfume has played that important role
due to the predominant belief that perfume arouses the sexual desire, as is made
clear in the following story: "`A'isha narrated, 'I scented the Messenger
of God, and he had sex with his wives' (al-Bukhari, Ghusl 14). It is
natural then that perfume is prohibited for women when they leave their homes: "Abu
Musa narrated that the Prophet said, 'If a women scents herself and passes by
people wanting them to smell her perfume, she is such and such [he emphasised
his word]" (Abu Dawud, Tarajjul 7).
- Tabaqat Ibn Sa`d, 1:398. "The Jews said, when they
saw the Messenger of God marrying women, 'Look at this man who never has enough
of food and cares for nothing else as he does for women.' They envied him for
his wives and found fault with him because of that and said, 'If he were a
prophet, he would not desire women'" (Tabaqat Ibn Sa`d,
8:202). Ibn Sa`d explained why Muhammad married several women by stating
that this was the tradition (sunna) of the prophets since Solomon, the
son of David, married a thousand women, seven hundred of them received dowry and
three hundred were concubines. David had a hundred wives; Uriah the mother [sic]
of Solomon was one of them, whom he married after the temptation. This is more
than what Muhammad had (ibid.). Moreover, one should understand the many number
of wives Muhammad had as a bounty and grace of God: "Or do they envy people
because of what God has given them out of His bounty? We already gave Abraham's
family the Book and wisdom, and We gave them splendid control" (Sura
- al-Bukhari, At`ima 25,30, Fadhail al-sahaba 30, Anbiya
32,46; Muslim, Fadha'il al-Sahabu 7,89; al-Tirmidsi, At`ima 31,
Fadha'il 62; al-Nasa'i', Nisa' 3; Ibn Maja, At`ima 14;
al-Darimi, At`ima 29; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 3:156,264. Muhammad's most
favourite dish was tarid (al-Darimi, At`ima 22), and Muslim says
that the Messenger of God died before he had enough of tarid (Muslim,
- The narrator, however, corrects this mistake: "O God, forgive me! I
mean `women'" (Tabaqat Ibn Sa`d, 8:398).
- al-Nasa'i', Khail 2; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 5:28.
- al-Tirmidsi, Janna 1; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 5:352.
- al-Tirmidsi, Nikah 1; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 5:421. Woman's prayer,
however, is not acceptable if she is perfumed (Abu Dawud, Tarajjul 7).
- Muslim, Radha` 59; Ibn Maja, Nikah 5; al-Nasa'i', Nikah
15; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 2:168. Muhammad has frequently referred to woman as an
object of enjoyment (mata`, i.e. a piece of luggage) (al-Bukhari, Jihad
72; Abu Dawud, Buyu` 74; Adhiya 22). The Qur'an says the same in
Sura Yusuf 12:17,65,79.
- Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 2:252,432,438.
- Kafit: The ability to have sex and to marry (Lisan al-Arab,
- Tabaqat Ibn Sa`d, 8:192; al-Tirmidsi's commentary on
Sura al-Mujadila 58:1; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 6:37.
- Tabaqat Ibn Sa`d, 8:192. Another tradition has it that
Muhammad was given the strength of thirty men, as al-Tabarani mentioned (al-Anwar
al-muhammadiyya min al-mawahib al-`adunniyya (Beirut, 1892), p.261) and
al-Bukhari: "The Prophet used to visit all his wives in a round, during the
day and night and they were eleven in number. I asked Anas, 'Had the Prophet the
strength for it?' Anas replied, 'We used to say that the Prophet was given the
strength of thirty men'" (Ghusl 12).
- Tabaqat Ibn Sa`d, 8:193. al-Qadi `Iyad said that the
Messenger of God was given enough strength to have intercourse with all his
wives (al-Shifa fi sifat al-Mustafa (Beirut, 1980) 1:195).
- Scholars are not in agreement about the number of Muhammad's wives.
Some say they were twelve (Tabaqat Ibn Sa`d, 8:52-139), while
al-Tabari says they were fifteen (al-Tabari, 3:160ff.). Maria, the Copt, is
either listed under "the slaves of the Messenger of God" or not listed
at all, as well as Rayhana who was taken captive during the destruction of Banu
Qurayza, who was "the Prophet's favourite" (al-Tabari, 3:129; Usd
- Tabaqat Ibn Sa`d, 8:141.
- ibid. 8:150.
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