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- al-Sira al-nabawiyya, 1:198.
- Tabaqat Ibn Sa`d, 1:132. The Swedish orientalist Frants
Buhl thinks it is an exaggeration to say that Khadija was forty years old since
she already had five sons, knowing that Arab women suffer from early aging ("Khadidja",
EI, vol.2, p.922).
- al-Sira, 1:199.
- Tabaqat, 1:131.
- al-Sira, 1:200; Tabaqat, 8:52.
- al-Sira, 1:201; Tabaqat, 8:52
- Tabaqat, 1:132ff.
- al-Sira, 1:202.
- ibid. 1:132.
- Tabaqat, 1:137; cf. al-Sira, 3:193ff; al-Simt
al-thamin, p.13; al-Isti`ab, 4:1817ff.
- al-Sira, 1:202.
- Tabaqat, 1:144.
- Tabaqat, 1:144.
- Sura al-Nisa' 4:128; Tabaqat 8:52. Al-Tabari says in his
commentary: "If a woman fears that her husband feels aloof to her and
starts looking at another woman, either because he hates her or hates some
things about her, such as ugliness or old age, there is no fault in such a woman
who fears the desertion of her husband to free him from her appointed day [of
conjugal right], and thus win his kindness" (al-Tabari, 5:305-306). Yet the
case is otherwise with the men who fear the rebelliousness of their wives: "And
those you fear may be rebellious admonish; banish them to their couches, and
[even] beat them" (Sura al-Nisa' 4:34).
- Tabaqat 8:53. `A'isha `Abd al-Rahman says concerning Muhammad when he
drove Sawda away and received her again among his wives, "But he pitied her
emotional deprivation and did not like her to fall a victim to the brutal
feeling that she was not like the other [wives]. He tried his best to open his
heart to her, but he could not get his human nature to do so. The uttermost he
could do for Sawda was to equalise her with the rest of his wives in terms of
housing and keep; as to his emotions, he found it impossible to force something
unpleasant to them, or subdue them by his will-power to the balances of justice
and the regulations of fairness!" (Nisa' al-Nabi, p.66). For more
information on Sawda, see Ansab al-ashraf, 1:407; Usd al-ghaba,
5:584; Annals of al-Tabari, 3:161.
- Tabaqat, 8:58; Abu Dawud, Nikah 34; Ansab al-ashraf,
1:410; Usd al-ghaba, 5:501
- al-Sira, 4:293
- Tabaqat, 8:58
- Tabaqat, 8:60
- ibid. 8:64
- ibid. 8:65
- ibid. 8:67
- ibid. 8:318; al-Bukhari, At`ima 25,30; Fadha'il al-sahaba
- Tabaqat, 1:318
- ibid. 8:62
- ibid. 8:80-82; al-Sira, 4:294
- Tabaqat, 8:83; Ansab al-ashraf, 1:402; Usd al-ghaba,
- ibid. 8:85,90ff. al-Sira, 4:294.
- Tabaqat, 8:91ff.
- ibid. 8:94
- ibid. 8:95-96. While eye-witnesses of the household of Muhammad (the
chief one of whom is `A'isha) tell us that about the beauty of Umm Salama and
the way she rivalled the rest in beauty, Muslims in the twentieth century try to
convince us that she was middle-aged and that Muhammad married her only out of
pity (Hasan Kamil al-Maltawi, Rasul Allah fi al-Qur'an al-karim (Cairo,
1979), p.339; al-Manar, 5:305; Muhammad Rashid Ridha, Fatawa al-Imam,
- Tabaqat, 8:96; Annals of al-Tabari, 3:164; Ansab
al-ashraf, 1:429; Usd al-ghaba, 5:560.
- Tabaqat, 8:101.
- Sura al-Ahzab 33:37.
- Tabaqat, 8:101-102.
- ibid. 8:104.
- Sura al-Ahzab 33:53.
- Tabaqat, 8:105-106.
- ibid. 8:108; al-Simt al-thamin, p.110; al-Isti`ab,
40:1851; al-Isaba, 9:83.
- ibid. 8:108.
- ibid. 8:114.
- ibid. 8:110-116; Usd al-ghaba, 5:466.
- Tabaqat, 8:166.
- Tabaqat, 8:116-117; Ansab al-ashraf, 1:433; Usd
- Tabaqat, 8:117; al-Sira, 4:296; Usd al-ghaba,
- Tabaqat, 8:118.
- ibid. 8:121-122.
- ibid. 8:126; Ansab al-ashraf, 1:422; Usd al-ghaba,
- Tabaqat, 8:129-130.
- ibid. 8:132; Ansab al-ashraf, 1:453; Usd al-ghaba,
5:460; al-Tabari, 3:167.
- Tabaqat, 8:133. Cf. the traditions quoted here (8:133ff.).
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