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- Ibn Maja, Nikah 1.
- Muhammad Rashid Ridha, Fatawa al-Imam, 5:1902ff.
- Sura al-Ahzab 33:27.
- Fatawa al-Imam 5:1904.
- al-Tabari (commentary), 21:156.
- Tabaqat, 8:132.
- Fatawa al-Imam, 5:1905. This is what Muhammad Rashid Ridha
believes as well, even though he finds that the objection of Sheik al-Ghurab
weak, "If the Prophet wanted by polygamy to enjoy his rightfully wedded
[women], as kings and princes do, he would have chosen the fairest virgins, not
the middle-aged matrons. He said once to a man who married a matron, 'Why not a
virgin that you should play with her' (al-Bukhari, Jihad 113). I also
remind the reader that polygamy in that age was necessary since many [Muslim]
men would fall in battle and their women would need someone to take care of
them, as most of the men were idolaters" (al-Manar, 4:306; Muhammad
Rashid Ridha, Fatawa al-Imam, 5:1914; al-Sabuni, 2:317).
"It never happened that he chose a wife because of beauty or fairness,
and he did not take a virgin except for the daughter of his best and favourite
friend, who was also his successor: Abu Bakr.
- "This man who is slandered by the godless liars who claim that he was
dissipated in his sensual lusts, married his first wife when she was nearly
fifty years old while he was in the prime of his youth- hardly twenty five of
age! She chose him for his fame as truthful and faithful among his people, and
he lived with her till the day she passed away, not thinking to marry another
one, until a Muslim lady pitied his loneliness and took his permission to ask
`A'isha in marriage for him. And all what this girl, who was dear to him, heard
was words of praise for his deceased wife and she was pleased by his loyalty to
"The Prophet did not marry anyone just because she was described as
beautiful or vivacious; his incentive was rather to save them the humiliation
and to maintain the blood relation that was between him and them. Most of them
were widows who lost their protectors and next of kin, and none of their peers
offered to marry them" (al-Aqqad, al-Islam wa abatil khusumihi
(Beirut, 1974), p.183. Hasan Kamil al-Maltawi, Rasul Allah fi al-Qur'an
al-karim (Cairo, 1979)).
- al-Sabuni, 2:316.
- "They are indeed grudging liars! Muhammad was not a sensual man,
but a human Prophet. He married as men marry in order to be an example for them
of behaving equally. He was not a god or a son of god, as the Christians believe
their prophet was, but a human being like them, who was favoured by God with the
revelation and prophethood [lit., who is the recipient of revelation...]. "Say:
'I am only a human being like yourselves; it has been revealed to me that your
deity is God Alone" (al-Sabuni 2:315).
- Fatawa al-Imam, 5:1905.
- Annals of al-Tabari, 3:162; Tabaqat, 8:58ff; Ansab
al-ashraf, 1:410; Usd al-ghaba, 5:501ff. All the authority
references agree that Muhammad himself proposed to Abu Bakr through a woman
intermediary for his daughter, `A'isha. Sheik al-Ghurab does not give any
reference showing where he found that narration. Only the book of `A'isha `Abd
al-Rahman, The Wives of the Prophet, remains in this field, as the
writer quotes in full sincerity from the oldest sources what happened in
Muhammad's life, as does Hayatu Muhammad by Muhammad Husein Haikal.
- al-Sabuni, 2:331; likewise the exposition of Muhammad Rashid Ridha, in
- al-Manar, 4:303ff; al-Sabuni, 2:332; Fatawa al-Imam,
- al-Manar, 4:303ff; Fatawa al-Imam, 5:1909; al-Sabuni,
2:231; al-Maltawi, p.339.
- al-Manar, 4:304. We accept the Muslims' claim that Muhammad
married this lady to keep her from [the harm of] her folk after the death of her
husband in the raid of Uhud. But, it is unrealistic to generalise Muhammad's
purpose in marrying twelve women, either to honour them as doers of good, or to
protect the ones among them who were in danger. It is doubtful that Zainab Bint
Khuzaima was sixty years old when Muhammad married her, al-Sabuni claimed, since
there is nothing to back up this claim. Al-Sabuni quotes the following statement
from Muhammad Mahmud al-Sawwaf, "She had already reached sixty years when
the Prophet married her and she lived with him only two years, after which she
passed away. What do the liars have to say about this inculpable marriage, which
was performed for a noble reason? Do they find in it any of the things that
slanderers keep on bandying about? Do they find in it any trace of passion or
lust? Or do they rather find in it nobility, chastity, greatness, mercy,
beneficence, and charity on the side of the greatest Messenger of humanity, who
came as mercy to all beings? Let the prejudiced orientalists fear God and be
honest to logic, not betraying it for the sake of malicious ends. They indeed
took upon themselves to study the Islamic sciences chiefly to plot and conspire
against, and to malign the lord of humanity, Muhammad " (al-Sabuni 2:233).
- al-Manar, 5:305. Muhammad Rashid Ridha claims that she would go
out every day to al-Abtah to weep till someone from her clan interceded for her.
She found in Muhammad a caretaker for herself and her children (Muhammad Rashid
Ridha, Fatawa al-Imam, 5:1911).
- "In order to be a blessing to her folk" (al-Manar,
4:304; Muhammad Rashid Ridha, Fatawa al-Imam, 5:1912). Al-Sabuni lists
Muhammad's marriage with her among the women he married for political reasons:
"The Prophet married some women to unite the hearts around him and
bring the tribes closer to him. When a man marries a woman from a certain tribe
or clan, a relationship is created by that marriage. Naturally they rush to his
aid and protection. His marriage with Juwairiyya Bint al-Harith, the master of
Banu al-Mustaliq, was an example of this. She had been taken captive together
with her clan, and wanted to redeem herself. So she came to the Messenger of God
asking for his help and offering him some money. The honourable Messenger
offered to pay the ransom for her and marry her. She accepted the offer and they
married. The Muslims said, "The kinsmen of the Messenger of God are our
captives?" Then they freed all the captives, thereupon all the tribe of
al-Mustaliq adopted Islam when they saw that nobility, sublimity,
gentlemanliness, and chivalry. His marriage with Juwairiyya was a blessing to
her and to her folk and clan since it was the reason they became Muslims, and
thus freed" (al-Sabuni, 2:324-325).
- The same applies to his marriage with Safiyya Bint Huyay Ibn Akhtab who
was taken captive by a certain Muslim after the death of her husband in the raid
of Khaibar. The people of good judgement among the Companions told the Messenger
of God, "O Messenger of God, she is the matron of Banu Quraiza and
al-Nadhir [and] is not fit for anyone but you." So the Messenger of God
called for her and gave her the chance to choose either of two alternatives:
A- To release her and marry her.
B- To release her and let her join her family.
She chose to be released and to be married to him, because she saw how
gallant and noble he was (ibid. 2:335).
- Muhammad Rashid Ridha, Fatawa al-Imam, 5:1913. It is not easy
to believe that Muhammad's motive for marrying her was his fear that she would
be humiliated. We know that she fell to the lot of Dihya al-Kalbi when the
spoils were divided. But he married her when the Companions of Muhammad said
that she was the matron of her people and that no one should have her but
Muhammad (Tabaqat, 8:120-129; Ansab al-ashraf, 1:422ff; Usd
- Muhammad Rashid Ridha, Fatawa al-Imam, 5:1913; al-Manar,
4:305. Al-Sabuni says, "When Abu Sufyan heard about it, he acknowledged the
marriage and said, 'He is a stallion that none can subdue by piercing his nose.'
The Messenger was proud of this and did not deny he was a match for him. Hence
we see clearly the distinguished rationale for marrying the daughter of Abu
Sufyan. This marriage was for the sake of alleviating the harm done to him and
his followers, especially that now there was a relation of marriage between them"
- Muhammad Rashid Ridha, Fatawa al-Imam, 5:1914; al-Manar,
- al-Sabuni, 2:337.
- al-Sabuni, 2:318.
- ibid. 2:318-324.
- Rudi Paret, Zur Frauenfrage, p.55ff.
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