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- Muhammad Amin Ibn Abidin, Radd al-muhtar `ala al-Durr al-mukhtar
(Cairo, 1272 A.H.), 2:255. For this reason, Mahmud Shaltut, the former director
of al-Azhar University says, "As to those who avoid marriage, and make
excuses that it is troublesome, demanding, and limits their freedom, which
should be unrestrained, they are either ignorant folk, or they ignore the
meaning of humanity in the image of which they have been created. It is worthy
of the intelligent people to block all the roads for them till they depart from
the environs of man to the habitations of beasts and wild animals" (Mahmud
Shaltut, al-Islam `aqida wa shari`a, p.146).
- Kamal al-Din Muhammad Ibn Humam, Sharh Fath al-qadir (Cairo,
1315 A.H.), 2:340. Muhammad claims that the Muslim receives a reward from God
for his sexual intercourse: "You have a reward for your intercourse with
your wife" (Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 5:169).
- Ibn Humam, 5:169.
- Ibn Abidin, 2:340.
- al-Mabsut, 4:193.
- ibid. al-Kasani, 2:228.
- al-Kasani, 2:228; al-Mabsut, 4:194; Ibn Abidin, 2:340.
- al-Mabsut, 4:194.
- Ibn Humam, 2:339; Ibn Abidin, 2:342; al-'Ikhtiyar, 3:116; Ahmad
Ibn Hanbal, 2:172. There seems to be a universal "consensus" among the
old jurists, on the one side, and the scholars and the progressive and
conservative modern writers who support women's rights on the other side, that
the institution of marriage serves the conjugal relationship (sexual
intercourse) and childbirth (cf. Muhammad Rashid Ridha, Nida li al-jins
al-latif, p.16. Tahir al-Haddad, Imra'atuna fi al-sharia wa al-mujtama`,
p.27,29-33. Muhammad Salih (Sidi), al-Hidad li'm ra'at al-Haddad (Tunis,
1931), p.105-109. Rudi Paret, Zur Frauenfrage in der Arabisch-Islamischen
Welt (Stuttgart, 1934), p.146. Mahmud Shaltut, al-Islam `aqida wa
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